Maxaquin Prescribing Information
Maxaquin is an antibiotic that belongs to the fluoroquinolone class. It was used to treat various bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and certain skin infections. Antibiotic works by interfering with the replication and repair of bacterial DNA, effectively inhibiting the growth of bacteria.
However, it's important to note that Maxaquin and other fluoroquinolones have fallen out of favor in recent years due to concerns about their potential for causing serious side effects, including tendon ruptures, nerve damage, and other long-lasting adverse effects on health.
Uses of Maxaquin
Maxaquin was used to treat various bacterial infections, primarily those caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. Some of the common uses included:
- Urinary Tract Infections: Maxaquin was often prescribed to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by susceptible bacteria. It could be effective against both lower and upper urinary tract infections.
- Respiratory Tract Infections: Antibiotic was used to treat respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia caused by susceptible bacteria.
- Skin Infections: The antibiotic was sometimes used to treat certain skin and soft tissue infections, particularly when caused by bacteria that were susceptible to the drug.
- Prostatitis: Maxaquin was occasionally prescribed to treat bacterial prostatitis, an infection of the prostate gland, caused by susceptible bacteria.
The dosage of Maxaquin can vary based on the specific infection being treated, the patient's age and weight, and other individual factors.
Here are some general dosing guidelines:
Urinary Tract Infections:
- Uncomplicated UTIs: The typical dosage was 400 mg once daily for 3 days.
Respiratory Tract Infections:
- Bronchitis or Pneumonia: The usual dosage was 400 mg once daily for 10 to 14 days.
- The dosage for skin infections caused by susceptible bacteria could vary. It's important to follow your doctor's recommendations.
- The usual dosage for bacterial prostatitis was 400 mg once daily for 28 days.
Remember that dosages might change based on factors such as the severity of the infection, the patient's renal (kidney) function, and any potential drug interactions or contraindications. Also, it's important to complete the full course of antibiotics even if you start feeling better, as stopping treatment prematurely could lead to incomplete eradication of the infection and potential antibiotic resistance.
Side Effects of Maxaquin
Maxaquin, like other fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can potentially cause a range of side effects. These side effects can vary in severity and occurrence from person to person. Some of the common and more serious side effects include:
- Tendon Ruptures: Fluoroquinolones, including Maxaquin, have been linked to an increased risk of tendon ruptures, particularly in the Achilles tendon. This risk is more significant in older adults and people who are concurrently using corticosteroid medications.
- Nerve Damage (Peripheral Neuropathy): There have been reports of fluoroquinolones causing nerve damage, leading to symptoms such as pain, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness in the extremities.
- Central Nervous System Effects: Some people may experience central nervous system side effects, including dizziness, headache, confusion, hallucinations, and changes in mood.
- Gastrointestinal Effects: Common gastrointestinal side effects can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
- Skin Sensitivity to Sunlight: Fluoroquinolones can increase sensitivity to sunlight, leading to an increased risk of sunburn and skin reactions.
- Allergic Reactions: Some individuals may experience allergic reactions to Maxaquin, which can range from mild skin rashes to more severe reactions like swelling, difficulty breathing, and anaphylaxis.
- Liver and Kidney Effects: Medicine can affect liver and kidney function in some individuals, leading to changes in liver enzyme levels and kidney function tests.
- Cardiovascular Effects: There have been rare reports of cardiovascular events, including irregular heartbeats and QT interval prolongation.
- Blood Sugar Changes: Maxaquin may affect blood sugar levels, particularly in individuals with diabetes.
Interaction with other drugs
Maxaquin can interact with other drugs and substances, potentially affecting its effectiveness, increasing the risk of side effects, or altering the way other medications work. Here are some examples of potential drug interactions:
- Antacids, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum Products: Taking antacids, calcium, magnesium, or aluminum products can reduce the absorption of Maxaquin. It's recommended to separate the administration of Lomefloxacin and these products by a few hours.
- Corticosteroids: Concurrent use of Maxaquin with corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can increase the risk of tendon ruptures, particularly in older adults.
- Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs like ibuprofen or naproxen, when taken with Maxaquin, can increase the risk of tendon ruptures and other musculoskeletal problems.
- Warfarin and Other Anticoagulants: Lomefloxacin can interact with anticoagulants like warfarin, potentially increasing the risk of bleeding. Regular monitoring of blood clotting parameters is advised.
- Theophylline: Concurrent use of Lomefloxacin and theophylline (a medication used for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) can lead to elevated theophylline levels in the blood, increasing the risk of theophylline-related side effects.
- Certain Antiarrhythmic Drugs: Maxaquin can potentially increase the risk of arrhythmias when taken with certain antiarrhythmic medications.
- Certain Antipsychotic Medications: There have been reports of increased QT interval prolongation when Maxaquin is used with certain antipsychotic medications.
- Caffeine: Medicament might increase caffeine levels in the blood, potentially leading to increased caffeine-related effects such as restlessness and increased heart rate.
- Diabetes Medications: Maxaquin can affect blood sugar levels and may require adjustments in the dosages of diabetes medications.
What to avoid while on Maxaquin
While taking Maxaquin, there are certain things you should avoid to ensure the effectiveness of the medication and minimize the risk of side effects. Here are some important precautions and things to avoid:
- Sun Exposure: Maxaquin and other fluoroquinolone antibiotics can increase your sensitivity to sunlight and UV rays, leading to an increased risk of sunburn and skin reactions. Avoid excessive sun exposure and use sunscreen, protective clothing, and sunglasses when outdoors.
- Antacids and Mineral Supplements: Avoid taking antacids, calcium, magnesium, or aluminum products within a few hours before or after taking Maxaquin. These products can interfere with the absorption of the antibiotic and reduce its effectiveness.
- Caffeine: Lomefloxacin might increase caffeine levels in the blood, potentially leading to increased caffeine-related effects. Be mindful of your caffeine intake and its potential effects.
- Alcohol: While there is no direct interaction between Maxaquin and alcohol, it's generally a good idea to avoid excessive alcohol consumption while on antibiotics. Alcohol can interfere with your body's immune response and might exacerbate some side effects of the medication.
- High-Calcium Foods and Supplements: Foods and supplements high in calcium might also interfere with Lomefloxacin absorption. Try to avoid consuming large amounts of calcium-rich foods or supplements around the time you take the medication.
- Physical Activity and Exercise: Maxaquin has been associated with an increased risk of tendon ruptures, especially in older adults. Avoid excessive or strenuous physical activities that might put additional strain on your tendons while taking the medication.
- Other Medications: Some medications, including corticosteroids and certain antibiotics, can interact with Maxaquin and increase the risk of side effects.
- Driving and Operating Machinery: Medicament can cause dizziness, confusion, and other central nervous system effects in some individuals. If you experience these effects, avoid activities that require alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery.
- Smoking: Smoking can potentially affect the metabolism of Maxaquin and other medications.
Contraindications of Maxaquin
Maxaquin has certain contraindications, which are specific situations or conditions in which the use of the medication is not recommended due to the potential risks and lack of benefit. Some contraindications include:
- Hypersensitivity to Lomefloxacin or Fluoroquinolones: If you have a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Maxaquin or other fluoroquinolone antibiotics, you should not take this medication.
- History of Tendon Disorders: Maxaquin and other fluoroquinolones have been associated with an increased risk of tendon ruptures, particularly in individuals with a history of tendon disorders or tendon-related problems. If you have a history of tendon issues, you should avoid Maxaquin.
- Children and Adolescents: Maxaquin is typically not recommended for use in children and adolescents due to the risk of potential adverse effects on developing bones and joints.
- Myasthenia Gravis: Lomefloxacin and other fluoroquinolones can exacerbate muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder. Therefore, it's usually avoided in individuals with this condition.
- Seizure Disorders: Medicine may lower the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures in individuals with a history of seizure disorders.
- Heart Rhythm Abnormalities (QT Prolongation): Fluoroquinolones, including Maxaquin, can prolong the QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG), which may increase the risk of serious heart rhythm abnormalities. Therefore, Maxaquin is contraindicated in individuals with a history of QT prolongation or certain pre-existing heart conditions.
- Certain Gastrointestinal Disorders: Antibiotic should be used with caution in individuals with a history of certain gastrointestinal disorders, such as colitis or other conditions that can lead to inflammation of the intestines.
Pregnancy and Maxaquin
Maxaquin is generally not recommended for use during pregnancy due to concerns about potential harm to the developing fetus. The use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics during pregnancy has been associated with possible adverse effects on fetal development, particularly on the musculoskeletal system. These effects can include abnormalities in joint development and potential risks to cartilage growth.
Because of these concerns, fluoroquinolones are typically avoided during pregnancy unless there are no safer alternatives available and the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.
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