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Doxycycline Prescribing Information

Doxycycline has a wide variety of uses as we just saw above. Therefore, it is a commonly prescribed drug. It costs around $3 to $10 for a single pill. It was first created in 1957, but had to go rigorous testing for around a period of 10 years. Finally, in 1967 it become a commercially available drug which could be bought by the general public. It is a World Health Organization approved drug.

Doxycycline 100 mg

Uses of Doxycycline

Doxycycline is a versatile antibiotic medication that belongs to the tetracycline class. It is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections in both humans and animals. Some of the main uses include:

  • Bacterial Infections: Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, eye infections, and more.
  • Lyme Disease: It is often prescribed to treat Lyme disease, a bacterial infection transmitted through tick bites. Early treatment with Doxycycline can help prevent the progression of the disease.
  • Acne: Medicine is effective in treating moderate to severe acne. It helps reduce inflammation and control bacterial growth on the skin.
  • Malaria Prevention: In areas where malaria is prevalent, Doxycycline is used as a prophylactic medication to prevent the infection when individuals are exposed to the malaria parasite.
  • Rickettsial Infections: Antibiotic is used to treat infections caused by rickettsia, a type of bacteria. These infections include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Q fever, and typhus.
  • Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Medicine can be prescribed to treat certain sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, either alone or in combination with other medications.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): It can be used as part of the treatment regimen for pelvic inflammatory disease, which is an infection of the female reproductive organs.
  • Respiratory Tract Infections: Doxycycline can be used to treat respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis.
  • Rosacea: For some cases of rosacea, a chronic skin condition causing facial redness and visible blood vessels, remedy can help alleviate symptoms.
  • Periodontal Disease: It is sometimes used as an adjunctive treatment for periodontal (gum) disease in combination with dental procedures.
  • Mycoplasma Infections: Doxycycline can be used to treat infections caused by Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause conditions like atypical pneumonia.
  • Prostatitis: In some cases of chronic prostatitis, Doxycycline might be prescribed as part of the treatment regimen.


The dosage of Doxycycline can vary depending on the specific condition being treated, the severity of the infection, the patient's age, weight, and overall health. Below are some general guidelines for common uses:

Bacterial Infections:

  • Adults: The typical starting dose for adults is 100 mg twice daily, followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg once daily.
  • Children: Dosage is based on body weight and should be determined by a pediatrician.


  • The usual dose for acne treatment is 50 mg to 100 mg once or twice daily.

Lyme Disease:

  • Adults: For early Lyme disease, a common dosage is 100 mg twice daily for 10 to 21 days.
  • Children: Dosage depends on the child's weight and should be determined by a doctor.

Malaria Prevention:

  • Adults: The usual dose is 100 mg once daily starting 1 to 2 days before entering a malaria-endemic area and continuing during the stay and for 4 weeks after leaving the area.

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea:

  • A common dosage for treating chlamydia and gonorrhea is a single dose of 100 mg.

Respiratory Tract Infections:

  • The dose for respiratory infections can vary but is often in the range of 100 mg to 200 mg once or twice daily.


  • The typical dose for rosacea treatment is 40 mg to 100 mg once daily.

It's important to remember that the dosages mentioned above are general guidelines and may not be suitable for everyone. Additionally, take the medication as directed, with or without food, and avoid taking it with dairy products or antacids, as they can interfere with its absorption.

Side Effects of Doxycycline

Doxycycline can have potential side effects. Not everyone will experience these side effects, and their severity can vary from person to person. Some common and less severe side effects may include:

Gastrointestinal Distress:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort


  • Increased sensitivity to sunlight, which can lead to sunburn more easily
  • Skin rash or redness when exposed to sunlight

Esophageal Irritation:

  • Doxycycline can sometimes cause irritation or ulcers in the esophagus, especially if the tablet becomes lodged before reaching the stomach. It's important to take the medication with plenty of water and remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking it.

Yeast Infections:

  • An overgrowth of yeast in the mouth or genital area, resulting in discomfort and itching.

Decreased Appetite:

  • Some individuals may experience a decrease in appetite while taking Doxycycline.

Nervous System Effects:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness

Discoloration of Teeth and Bones:

  • This is more relevant in children and pregnant women. Doxycycline can affect the development of teeth and bones in children and should be avoided during pregnancy.

Vaginal Discharge or Itching:

  • Some women might experience changes in vaginal discharge or itching as a side effect.

Blood Disorders (Rare):

  • While rare, Doxycycline can potentially lead to changes in blood cell counts.

Liver or Kidney Issues (Rare):

  • Doxycycline can affect liver or kidney function in some cases, particularly if taken for extended periods.

It's important to note that more severe side effects are possible but are relatively uncommon. Some individuals may be more prone to certain side effects than others.

Interaction with other drugs

Antibiotic can interact with other drugs and substances, potentially affecting its effectiveness or causing side effects. It's important to inform your healthcare provider about all medications, supplements, and herbal products you are taking before starting Doxycycline. Below are some notable interactions:

Antacids, Calcium Supplements, and Dairy Products:

  • Doxycycline can form insoluble complexes with calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron, reducing its absorption. Avoid taking medicine with these substances or take them at least 2 hours before or after.

Blood-Thinning Medications (Anticoagulants):

  • The combination of Doxycycline with anticoagulant medications like warfarin can increase the risk of bleeding. Regular monitoring of blood clotting parameters may be necessary.

Penicillin and Related Antibiotics:

  • Combining Doxycycline with penicillin or related antibiotics may reduce the effectiveness of both drugs.

Antiseizure Medications (Epilepsy Drugs):

  • Some antiseizure medications like phenytoin and carbamazepine can decrease the effectiveness of Doxycycline.

Isotretinoin (Acne Medication):

  • The combination of Doxycycline and isotretinoin can increase the risk of intracranial hypertension (increased pressure inside the skull).

Oral Contraceptives:

  • Doxycycline might reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Consider using alternative methods of contraception during treatment and for a short period after stopping medicament.

Retinoids (Vitamin A Derivatives):

  • Concurrent use of antibiotic with retinoids like isotretinoin can increase the risk of intracranial hypertension.

Methotrexate (Immune-Suppressing Drug):

  • The combination of Doxycycline and methotrexate can increase the risk of methotrexate toxicity.

Lithium (Mood-Stabilizing Medication):

  • Doxycycline can increase lithium levels in the blood, potentially leading to lithium toxicity.

Warfarin (Blood Thinner):

  • The combination of Doxycycline and warfarin can increase the risk of bleeding. Close monitoring of blood clotting parameters is important.

Anti-Seizure Medications (Barbiturates):

  • Some barbiturate medications can decrease the effectiveness of Doxycycline.


Use of corticosteroids with Doxycycline may increase the risk of increased intracranial pressure.

What to avoid while on Doxycycline

While taking Doxycycline, there are certain substances, activities, and conditions you should avoid to ensure the medication's effectiveness and minimize the risk of potential side effects. Here's a list of things to avoid:

  • Avoid Dairy Products and Calcium Supplements: Antibiotic can bind to calcium and other minerals found in dairy products and calcium supplements, reducing its absorption. Avoid consuming these products within 2 hours before or after taking Doxycycline.
  • Avoid Iron and Magnesium Supplements: Similar to calcium, iron and magnesium supplements can interfere with Doxycycline absorption. Take them at least 2 hours apart from your dose.
  • Avoid Antacids: Antacids containing aluminum, magnesium, or calcium should be avoided while taking Doxycycline for the same reason—interference with absorption.
  • Limit Exposure to Sunlight: Doxycycline can increase your skin's sensitivity to sunlight, leading to sunburn more easily. Avoid prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and tanning beds. Use sunscreen, wear protective clothing, and consider staying indoors during peak sun hours.
  • Be Cautious with Other Photosensitizing Substances: Besides sunlight, other substances like certain perfumes, cosmetics, and even some medications can increase your skin's sensitivity to light. Be cautious when using such products.
  • Avoid Alcohol: While there isn't a strong interaction between Doxycycline and alcohol, alcohol consumption can potentially worsen certain side effects and interfere with your body's ability to fight off infections. It's generally a good idea to limit alcohol intake when taking antibiotics.
  • Do Not Crush or Chew Tablets: Swallow the tablets whole with a full glass of water. Do not crush, chew, or break them, as this can affect the drug's release and absorption.
  • Follow Dosage and Instructions: Stick to your prescribed dosage schedule and follow your healthcare provider's instructions. Do not increase, decrease, or stop taking drug without consulting your doctor.
  • Avoid Excessive Caffeine: Doxycycline can sometimes cause nervous system effects like dizziness or headache. Avoid excessive caffeine intake, as it could worsen these symptoms.
  • Inform Medical Professionals: If you require any medical procedures, surgeries, or dental work, make sure to inform the healthcare professionals that you are taking Doxycycline.
  • Stay Upright After Taking the Medication: To prevent esophageal irritation, take pills with a full glass of water and remain upright for at least 30 minutes afterward.
  • Inform Your Doctor About Other Medications: Inform your healthcare provider about all medications, supplements, and herbal products you are taking to avoid potential interactions.

Contraindications of Doxycycline

Contraindications are specific medical conditions or situations in which a particular medication, in this case, medicine, should not be used due to the potential risks and complications it may pose. Here are some contraindications for using this drug:

  • Allergic Reaction to Tetracyclines: If you have a known allergy to Doxycycline or other tetracycline antibiotics, you should not take drug.
  • Pregnancy: Doxycycline is contraindicated during pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimesters. It can affect fetal bone and teeth development, leading to discoloration and improper growth.
  • Breastfeeding: Medicine can be excreted in breast milk and may harm a nursing infant's bone development and teeth. It's generally advised to avoid using remedy while breastfeeding.
  • Children Under 8 Years Old: Pharmaceutical medication can cause permanent discoloration and damage to developing teeth and bones in children under the age of 8. It's generally avoided in this age group.
  • Severe Liver Dysfunction: Individuals with severe liver dysfunction may have difficulty metabolizing and clearing Doxycycline from their system, leading to potential accumulation and adverse effects.
  • Severe Kidney Dysfunction: Individuals with severe kidney dysfunction may experience decreased clearance of Doxycycline, potentially leading to increased drug levels in the body and an increased risk of side effects.
  • Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus): Antibiotic can exacerbate symptoms of lupus in some individuals.
  • Myasthenia Gravis: Remedy can worsen symptoms of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder.
  • Porphyria: Doxycycline can trigger attacks of porphyria, a group of rare genetic disorders affecting enzymes in the production of heme, a component of hemoglobin.
  • Acute Porphyria Attacks: In individuals with acute porphyria attacks, Doxycycline should be avoided as it can exacerbate the condition.
  • Esophageal Disorders: Individuals with esophageal disorders should use caution with Doxycycline due to the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.
  • History of Increased Intracranial Pressure: Drug can increase intracranial pressure and should be avoided in individuals with a history of this condition.

Pregnancy and Doxycycline

Doxycycline is generally contraindicated during pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimesters, due to potential risks to the developing fetus. Here's why:

  • Effects on Fetal Bone and Teeth: Medicine can affect the development of fetal bones and teeth. It can lead to discoloration and improper growth of the teeth and bones, a condition known as dental enamel hypoplasia. This is a permanent effect that occurs when the drug is taken during the period of tooth and bone development in the fetus.
  • Risk of Liver Enzyme Elevation: Doxycycline can sometimes cause elevated liver enzymes in pregnant women, which can potentially be harmful to both the mother and the fetus.
  • Alternative Antibiotics: For treating bacterial infections during pregnancy, healthcare providers often prefer to prescribe antibiotics that have a better safety profile for both the mother and the developing baby.

Due to these potential risks, Doxycycline is typically avoided during pregnancy. If you suspect you are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant, it's crucial to inform your healthcare provider so that they can provide appropriate guidance and alternatives if needed. Your doctor will weigh the potential benefits and risks of using any medication during pregnancy to determine the safest course of action for both you and your baby.

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