Keftab Prescribing Information
Cephalexin, commonly known by its brand name Keftab, is an antibiotic medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It belongs to the class of antibiotics known as cephalosporins. Antibiotic works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall synthesis, leading to their weakening and eventual destruction.
Uses of Keftab
Some of the common uses of Keftab include:
- Respiratory Tract Infections: Antibiotic can be prescribed to treat infections of the respiratory tract, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tonsillitis.
- Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: It is effective in treating skin infections like cellulitis, impetigo, and infected wounds.
- Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Keftab is often used to treat uncomplicated UTIs caused by susceptible bacteria.
- Bone and Joint Infections: It can be used to treat bone and joint infections caused by certain bacteria.
- Ear Infections: Medicine may be prescribed for certain types of ear infections, particularly when caused by susceptible bacteria.
- Strep Throat: Streptococcal throat infections, including strep throat, can be treated with Keftab.
- Dental Infections: Drug might be used to manage dental infections and other oral infections.
- Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis: In some cases, Keftab might be used as a prophylactic (preventive) measure against bacterial endocarditis before certain dental or surgical procedures in individuals with specific heart conditions.
- Other Infections: Keftab could be used for various other infections, depending on the specific bacteria causing the infection and its susceptibility to the antibiotic.
It's important to note that Keftab is effective against a range of bacterial infections, but it might not be effective against infections caused by viruses. Additionally, the choice of antibiotic depends on factors such as the type of infection, the suspected or identified bacteria, the patient's medical history, and any allergies they might have.
The dosage of Keftab can vary depending on the type of infection being treated, the patient's age, weight, kidney function, and other factors. The following are general guidelines dosages:
- For most infections, the typical adult dose is 250 mg to 500 mg taken every 6 to 12 hours.
- For more severe infections, higher doses might be prescribed, such as 500 mg to 1000 mg taken every 6 to 12 hours.
- The dose for children is typically based on their weight. It's usually around 25 to 50 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, divided into smaller doses.
- Dosage adjustments might be necessary for individuals with impaired kidney function. Your doctor will determine the appropriate dose based on your kidney function.
Duration of Treatment:
- The duration of treatment can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. It's important to take the full course of antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor, even if you start feeling better before the course is completed.
- Always take Keftab with a full glass of water. It can be taken with or without food, but taking it with food can help reduce the chances of stomach upset.
Remember, these are general guidelines, and actual dosages can vary. It's crucial to follow your doctor's instructions and not adjust your dosage without consulting a healthcare professional. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. However, if it's close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule.
Side Effects of Keftab
Not everyone will experience these side effects, and they can vary in severity. Common side effects may include:
Gastrointestinal Distress:Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Stomach cramps or discomfort
Skin Reactions:Rash Itching
Oral and Vaginal Candidiasis:Oral thrush (white patches in the mouth) Vaginal yeast infection (itching, discharge)
Allergic reactions are possible, although they are not very common. Signs of an allergic reaction may include rash, itching, swelling, severe dizziness, or difficulty breathing. Seek medical attention immediately if you experience these symptoms.
Other Side Effects:
- Joint pain
Serious side effects are rare, but they can occur:
- Severe diarrhea or watery stools, which could be a sign of a serious intestinal condition
- Unusual bleeding or bruising
- Yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice)
- Dark urine
- Severe skin reactions
Interaction with other drugs
Keftab can interact with other drugs, potentially affecting their effectiveness or causing side effects. Here are some examples of potential drug interactions:
- Probenecid: Probenecid is a medication used to treat gout and may increase the levels of Keftab in the body. Your doctor might need to adjust the dosage if you are taking probenecid.
- Medications that affect the kidneys: Since Keftab is eliminated from the body primarily through the kidneys, drugs that affect kidney function can impact its clearance. These include certain diuretics (water pills) and medications that might be harmful to the kidneys.
- Oral Contraceptives: Some antibiotics can potentially reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills). It's recommended to use additional contraception methods while taking Keftab and for a few days after completing the course.
- Blood-Thinning Medications: There have been reports of an increased risk of bleeding in some individuals taking tablets with blood-thinning medications like warfarin. Close monitoring of clotting times may be necessary.
- Antacids: Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium hydroxide can decrease the absorption of Keftab. It's advised to take antacids and this drug at least 2 hours apart.
- Other Antibiotics: Taking multiple antibiotics together might not necessarily increase their effectiveness and can increase the risk of side effects.
- Drugs that Affect the Stomach Acid: Medications that reduce stomach acid (such as proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers) might affect the absorption of Keftab. It's generally recommended to take these medications separately.
- Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Combining NSAIDs with Keftab could potentially increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects.
What to avoid while on Keftab
There are certain things you should avoid to ensure the effectiveness of the medication and to minimize the risk of potential interactions or side effects. Here are some things to avoid:
- Alcohol: Avoid consuming alcohol while taking Keftab. Alcohol can interact with the medication and potentially increase the risk of side effects or reduce its effectiveness.
- Antacids: If you need to take antacids for digestive discomfort, try to take them at least 2 hours before or after taking pills. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium can interfere with the absorption of the antibiotic.
- Dairy Products: Dairy products, especially those high in calcium, can also interfere with the absorption of Keftab. It's a good idea to take tablets a couple of hours before or after consuming dairy products.
- Iron Supplements: Iron supplements can affect the absorption of Keftab, so if you are taking iron supplements, it's advisable to take them at a different time of day than your dose.
- Vitamin or Mineral Supplements: Some vitamin and mineral supplements, particularly those containing calcium or magnesium, can interfere with Keftab absorption.
- Sun Exposure: Some antibiotics can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight. While on Keftab, it's a good idea to protect your skin from excessive sun exposure and use sunscreen.
- Driving or Operating Machinery: Some individuals might experience dizziness or confusion as a side effect of Keftab. If you are affected in this way, it's best to avoid activities that require alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until you know how the medication affects you.
- Other Medications: Some medications might interact with Keftab, so your doctor can provide guidance on how to manage these interactions.
- Grapefruit: While Keftab is not known to interact with grapefruit, it's a good practice to avoid consuming large amounts of grapefruit or grapefruit juice when taking medications, as grapefruit can affect the metabolism of certain drugs.
Contraindications of Keftab
Keftab has certain contraindications, which are specific situations or conditions in which the use of the medication is not recommended due to potential risks. Here are some contraindications:
- Allergy to Keftab or Cephalosporins: If you have a known allergy to Keftab, other cephalosporin antibiotics, or any of its components, you should not take this medicine. Allergic reactions to antibiotics can range from mild skin rashes to severe and potentially life-threatening reactions.
- Allergy to Penicillins: While Keftab is not a penicillin, there is a possibility of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins. Individuals with a severe allergy to penicillins may be at a higher risk of also being allergic to cephalosporins.
- History of Severe Gastrointestinal Issues: If you have a history of severe gastrointestinal issues, particularly colitis or other conditions affecting the colon, the use of Keftab might exacerbate these conditions.
- Kidney Disease: Antibiotic is primarily excreted through the kidneys. If you have severe kidney disease or impaired kidney function, your doctor might need to adjust the dosage of Keftab or consider alternative treatments.
- Porphyria: Porphyria is a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the nervous system and skin. Medicament can potentially exacerbate symptoms in individuals with porphyria.
- Certain Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as a history of blood clotting disorders or a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, might require careful consideration before using Keftab.
- Specific Drug Interactions: There might be specific drug interactions that could make the use of Keftab unsafe in combination with other medications.
Pregnancy and Keftab
Here's what you should know about using Keftab during pregnancy:
- Category B Pregnancy Classification: Keftab is classified as a Category B medication by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pregnancy. This means that animal studies have not shown any evidence of harm to the fetus, and there are limited human studies available. While no definitive risks have been identified, the medication should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits outweigh any potential risks.
- Treatment for Infections: If you have a bacterial infection that requires treatment during pregnancy, your doctor may prescribe Keftab if they determine that the benefits of treating the infection outweigh the potential risks to the fetus.
- UTIs and Pregnancy: Antibiotic is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. UTIs can pose risks to both the mother and the developing baby, so effective treatment is important.
- Consult Your Doctor: If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, it's essential to discuss your situation with your doctor. They will consider your medical history, the severity of the infection, and the potential benefits and risks of Keftab. Your doctor may also explore alternative treatment options if they have concerns about Keftab's use in your specific case.
- Dosage and Duration: Your doctor will prescribe the appropriate dosage and duration of Keftab based on your individual circumstances. It's important to follow their instructions and complete the full course of antibiotics.
- Breastfeeding: Keftab is generally considered safe for breastfeeding mothers because only a small amount of the medication is excreted into breast milk.
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